September 21, 2023
Classroom Management Techniques and Academic Performance of Students

Classroom Management Techniques and Academic Performance of Students

Classroom Management Techniques and Academic Performance of Students





Background to the Study

Classroom management is a significant part of effective teaching and learning process. Due to an effective Classroom management, students flourish in a positive class climate and a compassionate environment. From a student perspectives, effective Classroom management provides them the opportunities to social size themselves while leaning. From a teacher’s perspective, effective Classroom management involves precautionary discipline and fruitful teaching.

Okoli M. S. (2008) concluded that physical environment of the Classroom and seating arrangement is interrelated and managed alongside. For the Classroom to serve its purpose, the teacher must be able to establish order. This requires him/her to have the knowledge, attitude and skills necessary. He/she must be able to establish rapport with the students and their parents, invoice students in the processes of establishing ground rules for behavior and being accountable for their actions, manage transitions during instructions and motivate students to maximize time- on – task, supervise students in their learning activities and lastly deal with students’ misbehaviuour effectively.


However, the phenomenon of over- crowded classroom as well as poor quality and inadequate furniture in the Classroom due to unlimited expansion has taken its toll on the educational system. Thus only dew people will deny that the quality of teaching and learning is on the decline at all levels of the educational system. Hassan (1995)

In the same vein, Ajayi S. O. (200) Opines that the poor result of the senior secondary school examination (SSCE) in almost all subjects in recent years is one potent indicator.

The increase in examination malpractices cannot be divorced from poor seating arrangement in classroom.

Furthermore, Classroom management is the process of organizing and conducting the business of the Classroom, many perceive it as the preservation of order through teacher control.

Classroom management is much more than that; it also involves the establishment and maintenance of the Classroom environment so that educational goals can be accomplished (Savage and Savage 2010).

Effective Classroom managers create orderly, safe environments where students feel valued and comfortable. Thus, setting the stage for teaching and learning, to achieve Classroom space to support a variety of independence, small and large group activities (Crane, 2011). Secondary school teachers also designate a large area of floor space where students can gather for read aloud, demonstrations and Class meeting.


Hence, in all Classrooms, there should be no “blind” area in the room where students can be out of view. To structure “traffic flow” and minimize disruption, teachers separate high- traffic area such as group work areas, learning centers, student’s desk and teacher’s desk.

Supporting this view, Adeqinka (2012) stressed that effective Classroom managers provide a structured, caring environment that meets student’s personal and academic needs.

Such teachers are perceived as authority figures in the Classroom. They share high behavioural expectation, designing implement development appropriate lessons, and establish and enforce behavioural guidelines, because effective teachers respect students as individual with rights values and feelings, they carefully choose their words and actions to protect students dignity. They actively engage students in meaningful, challenging educational experiences and provide plentiful positive feedback. In short, they set their students and themselves up for success.


However, in effective teachers are poor planners. They do not start class on time, become side traced easily, use limited, low interest teaching strategies, and create a disorganized expectation, (Adeyemo, 2012). Furthermore, they avoid their responsibility in helping students to make good behavioural choices by trying to be he student’s friend instead of their teacher when that approach generates misnbehaviours, ineffective teachers use ridicules, sarcasm, and put- down to put students in their place. Students disrespect for these teachers is evidenced through increasingly frequent Classroom disruptions and exceeding poor behavioural choices.


Statement of the Problem

Classroom management is that heart of any educational system. No curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evolution, both of which are mainly carried out in the Classroom. Most of the class activities take place while students are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many secondary school student in the country today.

As rightly observed by Cohen and manron (1983). A careful attention of seating arrangement contributes effectively to Classroom management and control of over all success of the Classroom.

Observation reveals that in recent times, their there has been astronomies rise due to increase in environment of students in public secondary schools. Some schools have as many as eighty (80), hundred (100) of above per class as against the teacher students ratio of 1: 25 recommended by the National policy on education (FGN 2004) which can affect students’ academic performance if Classroom is not properly managed by the class  management. This situation has multiple negative effects on teaching and learning as well as students academic outcome. This is evidenced in the failure rates recorded by students in external exams like W. A. E. C in core subjects like Economics between 2004 to date (Osin 2009).

Apart from this, students no longer have confidence in writing exams on their own without examination Dishonesty (Mgbikem 2004). However, this research tends to take a look into how Classroom management techniques has affected the academic performance of students in economics from secondary schools in okobo local government area.


Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine Classroom management techniques and academic performance in Economics among secondary school students in Okobo local government area. The researcher also opined that specifically the study also sought to:

  1. Examine teachers’ Classroom management techniques effectives and academic performance in economics among secondary schools in Okobo local Government Area.
  2. Fine out methods of Classroom management.
  3. Examine teachers’ Discipline and students’ academics performance in economic among secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area.


Classroom Management Techniques and Academic Performance of Students

Significance of the Study

This study exposes the teacher to the concept, principle and theories they can apply in Classroom to effect change in learners teachers need every bit of knowledge on how to control the Classroom and to handle learners in the Classroom setting. As such, the findings of this research will be significant in the following aspects:

  1. It will stimulate a rethinking in teachers and other educators about teacher education and improvement of teaching and learning process in school.
  2. It will provide more insight to both teachers and educators on the required performance on teachers.


Research Questions

The following research questions are posed to give the study a direction. The research questions are specifically as follows:

  • In what way does a Classroom management technique contribute effectively to students’ academic performance in economics?
  • To what existence does method of Classroom management techniques influences academic performance of students among secondary schools in Okobo Local Government Area?
  • Do teachers’ discipline influence students’ academic performance in economics?


Delimitation of the Study

This study is limited to only five (5) secondary schools in okobo Local Government Area and a sample size of two hundred (200) respondents drawn from the five randomly selected schools.


Limitation: The study is constrained by limited time frame for it execution and completion, finance, logistic problem and for the purpose of arriving at accurate analytical data.

These circumstances made the study highly limited, as it finding may differ from what may be obtained in other states of Nigeria, so the generalization made here may not be generally accepted in some quarters. This has limited the researcher in it generalizations.


Definition of Terms

To show a clear perception of the study, the following terms are defined:

Class Size: The total number of students in a class at the given tine under the supervision of a single teacher.

Classroom Management: This has to do with the smooth and effective handing of the class through the process of controlling, supervising planning, mobilizing of various resources.

Academic Performance: This is the varying ability in which students perform at schools.

Class Room: The refers to a room of place where lessons are conducted.

Teaching: This refers to the art of imparting knowledge, skills and attitudes especially by a trained teacher.

Teacher: This refers to a person who has undergone training and is certified to impact knowledge.

Student: This refers to a child undergoing studies in a secondary schools.




The chapter is aimed at reviewing the work done by seasoned researchers and academics that have direct relevance to the area under this research. This review will be done under the following headings as listed below:

  • Theoretical frame work
  • Teachers’ Classroom management techniques effectiveness and students’ academics performance in economic.
  • Teachers’ discipline and students’ academic performance in economics.
  • Method of Classroom management.
  • Summary of literature Reviews.


Theoretical Framework

The study adopted a human relations approach as propounded by Mary parker pullet, Elton Mayo and fritz Roethlisberger theory which dealt with human capital development in educational sector, the need of in service training seriousness in service and professionalization cannot be over emphasized. The theory focus on people and their relationship in organization. They agued that while money is an important motivating factor, most people are willing to take part of their reward based on human treatment, personal attention and a chance to feel important.

However, the two Harvard professes Elton mayo; an industrial psychologist, fritz Roethlisberger; a social psychologist between 1927 and 1932 conducted sense of experiments popularity referred to as “The Hawthorne studies” to establish the relationship between physical conditions of work and productivity (Nkang, 2002).


Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques Effectiveness and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics

Classroom management includes these activities which impact academic achievement, management of curriculum planning, management of student behavior and procedure management of class size and the rest of them. It is obvious that class room management is important in student academic achievement. Different scholars state much idea about the importance of Classroom management.


Again Kyriacou (1993) argue that though research on developing Classroom expertise has expanded, research conducted with student’s teachers on Classroom management reveals that student teachers still consider Classroom management as a major concern.


Further strengthen that recent research concentrated on knowledge, understanding and skills regarding effective Classroom teaching. Therefore, there is a need for research evidence on how to improve the quality of teachings, and an indication why Classroom management has assigned wonderful importance in recent years (Arends, 1994).

Indeed, it is important to consider the importance of maintaining order in effective Classroom management. This has become necessary because establishing and maintaining order is central to what educators. Moreover, according to Woyle (2011) “the underlying assumption is that Classroom order encourages student’s engagement which supports learning and improves their academic performance. Therefore, a teacher is hard pressed to promote students learning” The implication of this, according to him is that “Classroom management results in the loading of order and learning.”


He therefore, saw Classroom management as the progression of strategies that teacher utilize to promote order and student engagement and learning. Therefore, the consequence of this position is the prompt enhancement of the righty learning outcome.


According to Arieser (2017), Successful Classroom management enhances student’s performance and exploration only if the learning environment is conducive i.e when the Classroom is not over populated. Classroom management techniques as used in this study, refers tactics adopted by teachers to ensure decorum in the Classroom and thus create a healthy and conducive atmosphere for learning.


Any Classroom regardless of grade level, the potential for conflict is inevitable.  It is the job of the teacher to address and attempted to prevent such conflicts either by minimizing the number of student in such class or using corporal punishments. Thus, Wong etal (2012) explains that there are three elements which make an effective teacher.

In addition to teaching for lesson mastery and practicing positive expectations, Classroom management makes an effective teacher. Therefore, a teacher cannot be effective with out the ability to deal with potential conflicts. However, in the absence of Classroom management skills, the effectiveness of quality instruction is compromised as well. Therefore, effective learning depends completely on a well- managed Classroom. If not well managed, a Classroom may be disordered and disruptive, and carelessness and poor learning may result. Therefore, to easiness the teachers’ anxieties and frustration, the acquisition of management skills and knowledge’s is important.


  • Teachers’ Discipline and students’ Academic Performance in Economic.

Discipline in the Classroom also carries others meaning which a teacher can apply Onye (1984:112) A teacher is said to maintain a good disciple when students are obedient, well behaved and friendly; it can relate to the techniques that might be employed to bring about order and control. Ehen a teacher is asked to describe the sort of discipline he/she uses, he/she is being asked to racial the methods by which order is established. In the other hand, discipline refer to self control. Thus, a student is described as being highly disciplined when he/she appears to exercise from control over his personal activities.


Idowu (1995:56) recognized that Classroom management skills cannot be complete, if there is no proper discipline among the students. He found that students who are well behaved will likely put more effort in their students, such can perform creditably in both internal and external examinations.

Bulus (1997:67-85), Absence that, teachers attitude to Classroom discipline may contribute to students’ poor learning performance. Some teachers fails to assign punishment to students who fail to submit as assignment or class-work on time, as this may contribute to poor learning habits, and total unwilling to learn.

Etuk (1996:77) supported that, many students view disciple to mean punishment, pain and fair, discipline to them has a negative connotation. When discipline is mentioned among students, they become scare and frightened. To them, it is always applied on Wrong doers for correction. But here discipline is seen as a positive force that could be used in training, guiding students and arranging conditions of learning.


In Classroom, discipline is used to create a conducive environment to achieve behavior. This therefore implies that a class teacher must have a thorough understanding of discipline as a subject and also know how and when to apply it in the Classroom situations (Okoro 2003).


Denga (1983) found that, most of the economics teachers are not themselves disciplined as most of them stay away from class for weeks he maintains that the teachers attitude to work may contribute to students’ poor learning performance. Some of them do not prepare their lessons notes not to talk of using effective teaching materials to deliver their lessons. Hence, some students may not even bother coming to school as a result of unemotional Classroom atmosphere created by a student teacher.


Basically, the growing number of reports of violence and disruption in due secondary schools has again focused attention and the importance on the efficacy of punishment for its power and ease of use, discipline historically has been among the most frequent form of one attempt to train its young ones. Before the adult of formal education in the present okobo Local Government Area, the traditional communities have had strict social attitude to discipline, because they embarked upon The traditional education.

If the individual in the school system is not willing to conform and the teacher who commitment is to stipulate then rules and regulations of then school is not always effective in carrying out it obligations effective discipline cannot be achieve in such school.

Hence, the school like any other formal organization always faces the problem of how to deal with individuals who do not conform to the laid down standard rules behaiours expected of the teachers and students in the systems. The non conformity to the norms of a particular group is what sociology terms as “deviant behavior.”  As children if we are be punished for lying and rewarded for telling truth. If so we will probably not tell lies very.



RESEARCH METHODS                      

This chapter would be focusing on the methodology adopted for this study and as such the following sub-headings would be taken into consideration:


Area of the study

The study was conducted in Okobo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State this is because the researcher is from the area.

Obviously, Okobo is local Government in Eket senatorial district of the state with headquarters at okopedi. It is located in the south eastern part of the state. Certainly, the people of the area are of the oro ethnic extraction. Okobo was created on 1959 by the government of former president Ibrahim Bahangida. The area occupies a total landmass of about 1200 square kilometers (km2). Okobo is made up of seven districts namely; Eka, Odu, Atabung, Ukwong, Ebighi, Okiuso and Abighieta. It shares boundaries with Uruan  (West), Nsit Atai (North), and Oron (East) local government areas.


Interestingly, Okobo is endowed with a tropical forest with obeche and mahogany for supply of wood for beat and canoe construction. There are also abundant deposits of clay and fine sand. Their cultural heritage is demonstrated in several traditional dances and masquerades such as Ekpe, Ibom, Okpon-kpong Afiakeyit, Nkuho, etc. the people are predominantly fishermen, farmers and traders.

(Sources: Demographic survey Report, 2013).


  • Research Design

The study adopted a simple sampling techniques research design method the reason was that the study intended to establish the relationship between classroom management techniques and Academic performance in economics Among secondary schools students in Okobo Local Government Area.


Survey research design method was in the study because the study demands raw information from students offering economics concerning the influence of classroom management techniques in economic among secondary school student in Okobo Local Government Area.


Classroom Management Techniques and Academic Performance of Students

  • Population of the study

All the senior secondary one (SS1) and senior secondary two (S.S.2) students in economics in Okobo Local Government Area where used for the study a total of 1,000 economics student constituted the population of the study.


  • Sample/Sampling Technique of the Study

For proper data analysis, two 200 person or respondents were selected. However, simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of then respondents (students) as well as the schools. This technique was considered suitable to ensure that every students in the school had a fair chance of being chosen for the study. Mean while, the names and the location of schools selected for the study are presented in the table 1 below:

Table 1: Sample frame.

1. Community secondary school Odobo 40
2. National High school Odobo 1 40
3. Union secondary school Nsie 40
4. Comprehensive secondary school Okobo 40
5. St. Vincent secondary school Oti-oro 40
  Total   200


3.5 Instruments for Data Collection

The questionnaire which was designed aiming at gathering vital information concerning the influence of proper classroom management in secondary schools, was divided into two 2 section (A and B) .


Moreover, the section A of the questionnaire desalts with the personal data if the respondent where as, section B was the statement and each statement has a 4 liked scale ranging from strongly agree (SA), strongly Disagrees (SD) and Disagree (D).

  • Validation of Instrument

The items in the instrument were scrutinized and restructured by the project supervision.


  • Administration of Instrument

On the selected students after the researcher had obtained due permission from the principles of the respective schools. All completed documents were then retrieved for data processing.

  • Method of Data Analysis

The method of data analysis used in the study was a simple percentage method.




4.1 Preamble

The chapter presents the analysis of the data collected for the study. The data is analyses according to the research questions of the study. The result of the findings is given at the end of each analysis. All the analysis are done using the simple percentage method of analysis. It is given as:

P  =   fv   X   100

Wf         1



Fv = frequency of the variable

Wf = whole frequency

P   = percentage


4.2 Analysis/ presentation

In this case, the responses collected form the respondents as they have chosen from the 4 liked scale, are collapsed into two scales of Agree (A) and Disagree (D). This is consistent in each of the table presented below.

Research Question One

In what way can teachers’ classroom management contributes effectively to student’s performances in economics?



TABLE 2: Teachers’ classroom management effectiveness and students’ performance in economics.


S/N Items Code Responses   Total
    Agree% Disagree %  
1. My teacher cannot teach well when the class-size is too large. 131






2. My performance in school depends on teacher’s teaching efficiency. 112






3. Proper Classroom management by teachers can easily 112 fluence students performance 102






4. My teacher does not like to arrange the class properly before teaching hence no effective teaching. 144






5. When a classroom is property arranged, 1 enjoy the lesson very well 156






  Total 645






Testing Question 1, the responses of statements 1,2,3,4, and 5 from the questionnaire were shown in table 2 above.

From the test, the percentage of the respondents agreed was greater than the percentage disagreed.

That is (321.4%>178.6%). Hence, it was accepted that teachers’ classroom management contributes effectively to students’ performance in


Research Question 2.


Do teachers’ Discipline influence students’ performance in economics?

Table 3: Teachers’ Discipline and students’ performance in economic?


S/N Items Code Responses   Total
    Agree% Disagree %  
6. I cannot perform well in school because of how I am discipline in school. 120






7. Because of my teacher audibility, I cannot perform well in school. 90






8. My teacher ineffectiveness in teaching contributes to my low performance in economics. 150






9. It is because of lack of discipline by my teacher that causes me perform poorly in school. 130






10. Lack of maintaining discipline in the class causes students law performance in school. 110






  Total 600






In then test for research question 11, the responses of statements 6,7,9, and 10 from the questionnaire were shown in then table two above. From the result of the test, the percentage (%) of agreed respondents was greater than that of disagreed that is (333.3% > 166.7%). This implies that, teachers with low skill performance cannot meet the demands of classroom management.

Research Question 111

Which method can a teacher use to introduce effective classroom management?

TABLE 4: method use by a teacher on effective classroom management


S/N Items Code Responses   Total
    Agree% Disagree %  
11. The methods and competencies my teacher acquired during his preparation are used as follow-up assistance in my school. 130






12. The level of professionalism competence, and expertise that is seen in my teacher was developed through appropriate continuing education experience. 120






13. Asking of question in the class during lesson improve my learning process. 160






14. My teacher does not prepare his lesson in economics before coming to the class. 95






15. A proper classroom management improves student’s performances. 140






  Total 645






Testing for research question 111, the responses of statements 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 from the questionnaire were shown in table three above. From the result, it has noticed that the % agreed respondents is greater than that of the disagreed respondents. (i.e 320% > 180%).

This therefore implies that the method use by teachers t6o introduce effective classroom management affect student performance in economics.


4.3 Discussion of Findings

The analysis of the responses to research questions one to three presented on tables two to four revealed that over class population actually has effect on students’ academic performance in secondary schools.

On students’ learning capability, if it is generally believe that the fewer the students’ a teacher has in a class, the more attention such a teacher would give to each of the students. This is in support of Otu  (2002) that becomes difficult for the teacher to individualize instruction in a classroom that is tightly packed with students and scats that the teacher hardly moves about freely.

Furthermore, Batty (1999) provides evidence that high carbondioxide levels in the classroom can impair a Childs educational performance and learning abilities. In addition, the learning environment according to Otu (2002) should be the type that allows the child to perform his/ her abilities with minimum strain and maximum economy.


However, on class population, method of instructions and the use of instructional materials, the study agrees with Uyoata (2006) that where the number of students in a class in too large, the degree of effectiveness of the teacher will greatly reduce.

Therefore, the excess workload on the teacher means much in terms of mental and physical health. Thus, the teacher will not have enough times to prepare his lessons well.

However, many topics may not be taught satisfactorily. Hence, the excess teaching load would not permit the teacher to carry out proper assessment of students activities as the teacher is often exhausted after a period of instruction.


Evidently, many studies have shown that the predominant method of teaching in our secondary schools in the lecture method. This is so because teachers want to reach as many students as possible. Teaching in the secondary school requires the use of wide variety of instructional materials in order to make the lesson interesting, reduce boredom and to make the students active participant (learner entered).

However, the study has revealed a poor utilization of instructional materials in a over class population as it is obvious that there may be insufficient  materials to go round, ever when improvised, they may be in short supply.

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