September 20, 2023





The purpose of this study was to investigate influence of classroom variables on the teaching of integrated science in Onna Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Two research questions were asked to give direction to this study. Survey design was adopted for this study. The population for this study consisted of all the integrated science teachers in Onna both public and private secondary schools in the study area. Sample size of seventy two (72) integrated science teachers were randomly selected from twenty four (24) schools using simple random sampling technique.

The instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using statistical mean. The result revealed that small class sizes promote the teaching of the integrated science than large class-size.



TITLE PAGE       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

CERTIFICATION –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

DEDICATION      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

ABSTRACT         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –        v

TABLE OF CONTENTS –       –       –       –              –             vi



 1.1  Background to the Study   –       –       –       –       –       1

1.2   Statement of the problem –       –       –       –       –       5

1.3   Purpose of the Study – –       –       –       –       –       6

1.4   Significant of the study –       –       –       –       –       7

1.5  Research questions –       –       –       –       –       –       8

1.6   Limitation of the study –       –       –       –       –       8

1.7  Delimitation of the study –       –       –       –       –       8

1.8  Definition of terms –       –       –       –       –       –       9



2.1    Concept of classroom variables     –       –       –       –       10

2.2    Class-size and Teaching of Integrated Science        –       12

2.3    Classroom facilities and the teaching of integrated

Science     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       15

2.4    Students and Teachers Relationship     –       –       –       18

2.5    Summary of literature review       –       –       –       –       20



3.1    Area of the study        –       –       –       –       –       –       21

3.2    Research Design        –       –       –       –       –       –       –       22

3.3    Population of the study       –       –       –       –       –       –       22

3.4    Sample and sampling technique   –       –       –       –       23

3.5    Instrumentation for data collection        –       –       –       23

3.6    Validation of the instrument –       –       –       –       –       24

3.7    Administration of the instrument   –       –       –       –       24

3.8    Scoring of the instrument    –       –       –       –       –       24

3.9    Method of data analysis       –       –       —      –       –       25



4.1    Data Analysis     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       26

4.2    Discussion of result     –       –       –       –       –       –       29



5.1    Summary   –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       31

5.2    Recommendations      –       –       –       –       –       –       32

5.3    Conclusion         –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       32

5.4    Suggestion for further Study        –       –       –       –       33






1.1   Background to the Study

Education is the activity or process which modifies the behaviour of person from instructive to human behaviour (Taneja, 2013). This definition reveals the innate truth that education aims at discovering aptitudes as well as to progressively prepare man for social activity through which the basic needs (food, shelter and clothing) necessary for human survival can be produced through school system. Therefore, the best legacy which any parent can give to the children is Education.


A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adult learn about things (Hutchison, 2014) classrooms are found in education institutions of all kinds, from pre-schools to Universities, and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided such as corporations and religious organization. Thus, the classroom attempts to provide a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions.

According to Hussian (2014) most classrooms have a large writing surface where the instructor or students can share notes with others of the class. Traditionally, this was in the form of blackboard but these are becoming large common in well-equipped schools because of new alternative like white-boards and interactive white boards.


Many classrooms also have maps, charts, books, monograph, seats and tables etc. (Hopson, 2012) some classroom s also have or contain multimedia or telecommunication equipments, it may be punished with special equipment (e.g) globes, pianos, map etc) appropriate to a specific area of study.

A classroom can range from small groups of five or six to big classrooms with hundreds of students. A large classroom is also called a lecture hall. A few examples of classrooms are computer labs which are used for ICT lesson in schools, gymnasiums for sport, chemistry, Biology and physics laboratories for science practical. All these are examples of classroom.

Woolner (2010) asserted that the lighting and furniture are some factors that always distract student’s attention.


Desks should be arranged in columns ad rows, with a teacher’s desk at the front, where he or she would stand and teach the students (Zentall, 2012). This makes it easier for the teachers to supervise the students’ work and catch any students that may be misbehaving insuring that students stay focused.

However, online learning technology makes it possible for learning to take place at any time, at any place and at any pace that the learners desire. Obviously, this is important for adult learners who may need to schedule the learning around work and parenting responsibilities. Hopson (2012) said that 25% of employee training hours take place online rather than in the classroom. Thus, this is the challenge to the use of classroom.

Ogunnij (2011) reported that the approve number of class-size for class one to class nine (JS3) is 40 students per class while 35 students per class for senior classes. Okoro (2018) also reported that the class-size in secondary schools range between 35 to 40 students.


To this end, if the teacher’s-student ratio is at a right proportion. (that is 1:40), and the facilities in the classroom are available and properly utilized in the teaching of integrated science, it promotes efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning of integrated science. As the school population increases, class-size should also increase, the performances of students become an issue. Thus, classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

In addition, according to Dior (2015) class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupils feeling and achievement, on administration and budget of schools. It is on this note that this work therefore seeks to investigate the influence of classroom variables on the teaching of integrated science now known as basic science.


1.2   Statement of the problem   

Indeed, integrated science is the foundation of all the science subjects in the educational system. Therefore, the performance of students in this important subject should be as high as possible. Moreover, a cursory look at science classroom today indicates that they are not near what they should be as they are general lack of laboratory materials and equipment/roofs.


Observations and reports have shown that success or high academic achievement of students in this subject has become a herculean task to accomplish in recent times due to these inadequate.

Moreover, Essien (2012) reported poor performance of students in this important subject. Therefore, this poor performance of students has attracted much concern by educational stakeholder.

In addition, Soyinka (2012) observed that the decline in the academic performance of students and said that academic standard had fallen drastically and needs destructive. It is therefore necessary to find out the causes of such poor performance in our junior secondary schools. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the impact of classroom variables in the teaching of integrated science in Onna Local Government Area.


1.3   Purpose of the study      

Generally, study was to examine the influence of classroom variables on the teaching of integrated science.

        Specifically, the study sought to:

(i)     Examine the impact of class-size on the teaching of integrated science.

(ii)    Examine the effect of classroom facilities on the teaching of integrated science.


1.4   Significance of the Study 

The findings of this study will be useful in the following ways:   

(i)     Firstly, it will provide a conducive teaching and learning environment for students and teachers

(ii)    Secondly, policy makers shall find the findings of this study useful in deciding on rightful class-size in our schools.

(iii)    Also, Government will see the need to improve/promote more classrooms.

(iv)   Educational stakeholders will also see the need to provide more classroom facilities.


1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

(i)     To what extent does class-size impact on the teaching of integrated science in Onna Local Government Area?  

(ii)    To what extent does classroom facilities affect the teaching of integrated science in Onna Local Government Area?   


1.6   Limitation of the Study

The major limitations which the researcher suggests that will limit this study are financial and time constraints. Classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.


1.7   Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study was on classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in Onna Local Government Area. The target populations were junior secondary school teachers. The sub variables were class-size and classroom facilities.


1.8   Definition of Terms  

Classroom Variables: These are those factors in the classroom which influence the implementation of educational curriculum.

Class-Size: This refers to an educational tools that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school.

Classroom Facilities: These are the tools available in the classroom which help in the smooth achievement of lesson objectives.

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