Influence of Teachers’ Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools
1.1 Background to the Study
Over the years, education has been ranked as the best legacy any conscientious leader, government, or parent could leave for his/her people. This is increasingly important because the quality of education given to a people determined the standard of growth achieved Denga (2010).
On the whole, a teacher is effective to the extent that he causes learning to occur among his or her learners with minimum efforts from the learners. An effective teacher is a competent and committed teacher. The teacher is competent to the extent that he can analyze different teaching behaviors, distil from their specific skills and formulate these into usable strategies of classroom instrument.
Moreover, Ali (2010) observes that there was statistically significant influence between teachers’ variables and pupils’ academic performance. Adeyemo (2009) noted that teacher variable such as qualification and years of experience influence academic performance of pupils in school. The teacher variables found to be dominant in cross-country studies are related to qualification, experience, attitude and personality.
Akinsolu (2011) asserts that availability of qualified teachers determined the performance of pupils in schools. He emphasize that teachers involved in in-service training were more effective in classroom as compared to teacher who had not undergone training.
Wirth and Perkins (2013) indicate that teacher’s attitude directly affect pupils attitude on teacher year of experience.
Adu (2007) contend that teachers’ variables are strong determinants of pupils performance in schools. There has been no consensus on the importance specific teacher variables leading to common conclusion that the existing empirical evidence does not find a strong role for teachers in the determination of investigation the Influence of Teachers’ Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools in Basic science.
Influence of Teachers’ Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Poor academic performance of pupils in school has been linked to poor teachers’ performance in terms of accomplishing the teaching task, negative attitude to work and poor teaching habits which have been attribute to poor motivation.
It has been observed that conditions that would make for effective teacher such as resource available to teachers, general condition of infrastructure as well as instructional materials in public primary schools are poor (Oredein, 2010).
These prevailing conditions would definitely show a negative influence on the instructional quality in public schools which may translate to poor academic performance, attitude and values of primary school teachers. This study aimed to examine Influence of Teachers’ Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Specifically, the study aims at:
- determining the extent to which teachers’ qualification influence pupils’ academic Performance in primary schools.
- Finding out the influence of teachers’ years of experience on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
- Investigating the influence of teachers’ communication skills on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent does teachers; qualification influence pupils’ academic performance in primary schools?
- To what extent do teachers’ years of experience influence pupils’ academic performance in primary schools?
- How do teachers’ communication skills influence pupils’ academic performance in primary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant influence between teachers qualification and pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
- There is no significant influence between teachers’ years of experience and pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
- There is no significant influence between teachers’ communication skills and pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be significant in the following ways to the following people:
- It will help in sensitizing teachers on the need to examine their variables towards teaching and learning in primary schools.
- It will help the government on the need to provide adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning in primary schools.
- It will help serve as reference materials to other researchers who may want to carry out a research in the same or similar topic.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Apart from time constraint and lack of finance, the research work posted a great challenge to the researcher in the inability to cover the whole public primary schools in Itu Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State due to its large land-mass.
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms
Teacher: is a person involves in an attempt to instruct to bring about desirable changes in human learning ability and behavior.
Variables: refers to those qualities that can vary and can be used to describe a person or something.
Academic performance: refers to the performance of pupils in school either poor, high and average.
Teachers’ variables: these are those qualities a teacher possesses that are subject to change or vary such as qualification and experiences.
This chapter deals with the review of different work relating to teachers’ variables and pupils’ academic performance. The review will be carried out under the following sub-headings:
- The Concept of Teachers’ Variables
- Influence of Teachers’ Qualification and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools.
- Influence of Teachers’ Years of Experience and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools.
- Teachers’ communication Skills and Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools.
- Summary of Literature Review
2.1 The Concept of Teachers’ Variables
The term teachers’ variables can be referred to as qualities of a teacher that can be measured with test or derived from their academic or professional records. They indicate that teacher’s variable does not generally refer to the direct observation of their influence on pupils, test performance or teaching behaviours.
Rather, the approach dealt within the scope of this research are those that fall traditionally into the province of personal, psychology or personal selection. This review deals with those characteristics of teachers that might be identified and used in the initial hiring of teachers to increase their pupils academic performance.
Adeleke (2008) indicates that these variables could include qualities of teachers that are viewed as personal, such as mental ability, age, gender, or as experimental, such as certification status, educational background, previous teaching experience and the like.
Huang and Monk (2009) document those teacher variables such as qualification accounted for approximately 40 to 60% of the variance in average of pupils’ performance in assessment. Richardson and Park (2011) reveal that pupils in urban schools performed better than those in rural school as a result of having qualified teachers. Therefore, the researcher suggested that the availability of enough qualified teachers must have been a determinant for pupils’ performance. Yara (2010) concluded that there was a significant correlation between teacher qualification and pipils’academic performance.
Furthermore, Baker and Bell (2009) found five broad categories of teachers variables that appear to contributes to pupils academic performance. Also, experience, preparations programmes, and degnees, type of certifications, course work. Which are taken in preparation for the profession and teachers’ own test scores.
The role of a teacher as a facilitator of learning and the contributions to pupils’ academic performance is enormous. Adeogun (2011) asserted that, the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without human resources may not be able to achieve the goal and objectives of the educational system. It has been established that there is high correlation between who is a teacher and what he teaches .
Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the teachers knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. According to Eggen (2011), positive teacher’s attitudes are fundamental to effective teaching. He identified a number of teachers’ attitude that will facilitate a caring and supportive classroom environment.
2.2 Teachers’ Qualification on Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools
The qualification of teachers in any educational system determines to a great extent the quality of the system itself professional teachers’ in particular are crucial to the formulation and successful implementation of educational policies in any country. This has explained why our National policy on Education (2004) stressed the need to accord teacher education a prominent place in educational planning.
The policy further maintains that among other things the goal of teacher education should be: to produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of education system. To provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment.
Hammond (2008) defines qualified teacher as one who is fully certified and held the equivalent of a major in the field being taught. The qualification of a teacher is an important indicator for their knowledge and competence in teaching and how well prepared the teachers for what they have to teach in schools.
Studies have shown that teachers’ academic qualification exerts a great influence on the academic performance of pupils. Gibbons (2012) reported that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ educational qualification and pupils academic performance as pupils taught by more experienced teachers achieved at a higher level than those taught by a less experienced teacher due to the fact that the experience teachers have acquired cumulated classroom management skills and strategies to handle and cope with different classroom problems.
Ekanem (2006) pointed attention to the quality of teachers as the prime factor attributed to the cause of pupils’ consistent poor academic performance in examinations. Teacher’s effectiveness in a subject may be prime determinant of pupils’ performance in the subject. Ineffective teaching in schools arises probably from the quality of teachers recruited to teach. In many school, subjects are taught by people who are neither interested nor qualified in teaching the profession. In this kind of situation, pupils who undertake science and mathematics. At school may either end up disillusioned. Thus, greatly hampered in the development of the mental discipline which acquisition of scientific knowledge demands. Primary schools teachers need to be professionally qualified. Thus, to enable them work effectively with pupils in a stimulating and directing growth in a desire direction.
2.3 Teachers’ Experience on Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools
Studies have shown that teachers’ experience exerts a great influence on academic performance of pupils. Banjoka (2012) argued that a good foundation teaching is necessary to attract more pupils in the teaching profession. Daramola (2010) showed that the teaching experience in school may count significantly in the determination of pupils’ academic performance in public examination such as common entrance examination.
According to Mbeke (2010), teachers experience improve teaching skills and makes pupils learn better in the hand of a teacher. It is a known fact that a professional teacher become magnificent and more effective as he or she stages longer on the profession by learning more about the difficulties pupils encounter while learning Ogunkunle (2009).
In the same vein, Akpan (2010) remarked that experience serves to nourish teachers through exposure of training, rearing and upbringing and socialized them into teaching culture that translates into good pedagogic technique and problem solving strategies required by pupils in school. Barbara (2013) found experience teachers are more productive their counterparts.
Adeyeme (2008) explained that schools having more teachers with five years and above teaching experiences achieve better result than school having more teachers with less than five years teaching experiences.
2.4 Teachers’ Communication Skills on Pupils Academic Performance in Primary Schools
Communication skills can be defined as the transmission of message that involves the shared understanding between the contexts in which the communication takes places (Saunders and Mills, 2009). in addition, teachgers’ communication skills are important for a teacher in delivery of education to pupils ( Mecarthy and Carter, 2011). Influence of Teachers’ Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools.
Communication skills involve listening and speaking as well as reading and writing.For effective teaching,a teacher needs to be highly killed in all these areas. Teacher with good communication skillalways make things easier and understandable to his pupils.
Effective communication skills are really important for a teacher in transmitting of education, classroom management and interaction with pupils in the class.Teacher has to teach the pupils having different thinking approaches.
To teach in accordance with the ability and capability of the pupils, a teacher need to adopt such skills of communication which motivate the pupils toward their learning process(Bee, 2012).
Good communication skills of a teacher are the basic need for academic success of pupils. And professional success of life. Teacher communicates more instructions orally in classroom to pupils. Teacher with poor communication skills may cause failure of pupils. To learn and promote their academics. pupils need to understand what is right and what is wrong. While totally depend upon the communication skills of teachers which he adopt in classroom (Michael, 2010).
Good communication minimizes the potential of unkind feeling during the process of teaching.For learning to take place, the learner must be attentive toward their teacher during the lesson. In addition, Loss(2010), recommended that teacher communicate in clear and understandable manner.
Moreover, communication is the dynamic process with need of mind and courage to face the other and convey this or her message in effective way.
Also, communication is considered a strong tool for effectiveness in the teaching profession ( Monika.2008) as variety of skills are needed for good teaching and teachers, a study conducted by Ehindero and Ajibade (2010) indicates that for effective teaching, teacher requires good communication skills such as good classroom management, updating knowledge and maintaining personality. No one can teach effectively until he or she have these basic skills of teaching. Influence of Teachers’ Variables and Pupils’ Academic Performance in Primary Schools.
This chapter of the research study deals with the method used such as area of the study, research design, population of the study, sample/sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validation of the instrument, administration of the instrument and method of data analysis.
3.1 Area of the Study
Specifically, Itu Local Government Area occupies a land mass of approximately 606.10 square kilometers. It’s bounded in the North and North-East by Odukpani in cross river state, and Aruchukwu in Abia State, in the West by Ibibiono and Ikono Local Government Areas. Thus, in the South and South-East, it is bounded by Uyo and Uruan Local Government Areas, respectively.
Moreover, the people of Itu Local Government Area are predominantly Ibibio speaking group with pockets of Efik speaking people and the Ijaws. It has a population of approximately 127,856 people based on the 2006 National Census figure. The rich traditional culture is expressed in Ekpo and Ekpe masquerade and dances. The people of Itu Local Government Area are predominantly farmers, fisher men and women and traders though some are civil servants.
The Local Government Area is rich in both natural and mineral resources such as crude oil, fine sand, limestone, salt, gravel and clay. Specifically, forest resources consist of timber, wild life, palm trees, raffia trees, gmelina plantations and firewood.
However, marine resources include fish, crayfish, oysters, lobster, shrimps shells, periwinkle among others. Tourist attraction that abound in Itu Local Government Area include beaches. Navigable water system, beautiful topography of the area, etc. the people are mostly of Christian faith with few still practicing traditional worship. The area has good educational institutions both public and private ones.
3.2 Research Design
The method used in this research work was survey research, design in which the researcher administered questionnaire to the respondents at different schools within the area of the study in order to elicit appropriate information from them.
3.3 Population of the Study
The population for the study consisted of all the teachers in all the 38 primary schools in Itu Local Government Area. The target population was all the primary school teachers in the study area. The total population was seven hundred and fifteen (715) teachers.
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
The sample size for this study was drawn from the total of thirty-eight (38) primary schools in Itu Local Government Area. Ten (10) public primary schools were selected to from the sample size for the study.
From each of the ten (10) schools selected, ten (10) teachers were selected to form the sample size for the study. This amounted to one hundred (100) teachers as sample population. The researcher adopted simple random sampling technique in carrying out the study.
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
This instrument used in conducting the research work was researcher’s made questionnaire called “Teacher’s variables and pupils’ Academic performance Questionnaire (TVPAPQ).
The instrument had two sections; section A and section B. section A contained information about bio data of the respondents while section B contained 15 item statement concerning the topic.
3.6 Validation of the Instrument
The instrument used in carrying out the research work was the researcher’s made questionnaire called Teachers’ Variables and pupils Academic Performance Questionnaire (TVPAPQ).
This instrument was validated by research supervisor and two other experts from department of education and certified feat for the research requirements before being administered to the respondents.
3.7 Administration of the Instrument
The instrument for the research study was administered to the respondents through direct method of administration. This method that the researcher distributed the questionnaire to the respondents for them. To ticked and gave out their perception on the topic under research. This was done through a written permission from the research supervisor. Through the approval of the head of the sample schools visited.
The administration of the instrument was also made achievable through the help of research assistant assigned to assist in the conduct of the research study.
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
The method used in analyzing the data collected was independent t-test statistical method.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
This chapter focused on the presentation of the data collected for the study, analysis and discussion of findings.
4.1 Data Presentation
There is no significant influence between teachers’ qualification and pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
Independent t-test analysis showing the influence of teachers’ professional and non-professional qualificationonpupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
|Pupils taught by professionals teachers||60||11.72||2.03||
98 2.61 1.66 Sig
|Pupils taught by non- professionals teachers||40||10.65||1.96|
P ≤ 0.05
From the above table, the calculated t-value of 2.61 is greater than the table value of 1.66 at 98 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis one was therefore rejected and the alternative accepted. Which states that there is significant influence of teachers’ qualification and academic performance of pupils in primary schools. This implies that there is significant influence of teachers’ qualification on academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
Research Hypothesis Two:
There is no significant difference in academic performance in social studies between pupils taught by teachers who have long years of experience and those with short years of experience. The independent t-test was used to analyze the data drawn for this hypothesis. The result is presented in table 2 below.
Independent t-test analysis showing the influence of teachers’ experience on academic performance of primary school pupils
|Variables||N||X ‾||SD||t- cal||t-crit||Dec.|
|Pupils taught by teachers below 10 years
3.02 1.66 Sig
|Pupils taught by a teachers of ten years and above||30||12.2||1.89|
The table above showed that the calculated t-value of 3.02 is greater than the t-critical value of 1.66 at 98 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance. The null hypothesis two was therefore rejected for the alternative which states that there is significant influence. Thus, in academic performance pupils taught by teachers. Who have long years of experience and those with short years of experience.
Research Hypothesis Three:
There is no significant influence between teachers’ communication skills and pupils’ academic performance in primary schools.
Independent t-test analysis showing the influence of teachers’ communication skills on academic performance of primary school pupils
|Variables||N||X ‾||SD||df||t- cal||t-crit||Dec.|
|Academic performance of pupils taught by teacher with good communication skills||50||8.8||1.1||
986.66 1.66 Sig
|Academic performance of pupils taught by teacher with good communication skills||50||3.4||1.01|
The calculated t-value of 6.66 from the above table is greater than the table value of 1.66 at 98 degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of significance.
4.2 Discussion of Findings
In brief, the findings in table1 indicate that teachers’ qualification influence the academic performance of the pupils, maximally. This implies that teachers’ acquisition of qualifications play a vital role in the academic performance of pupils. Uko (2009) stated that successful teachers tend to be those who are able to use varieties of teaching strategies and who used various interactive styles rather than a single and rigid approach.
The findings also showed that teachers’ professionalism affects the academic performance of the pupils to a large extent. Therefore, the teachers’ professionalism in the school system is one of the parameters that influence the performance of pupils academically.
Therefore, the result of the findings in table 2 showed that teachers experience counts in the efficiency of the teachers.