September 21, 2023
Instructional Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Integrated Science among Junior Secondary Schools

Instructional Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Integrated Science among Junior Secondary Schools

Instructional Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Integrated Science among Junior Secondary Schools




Title Page





Table of Content



  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Research Question
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Definition of Terms



2.1     Concept of Instructional Materials

2.2     Types of Instructional Materials

2.3     Sources of Instructional Materials

2.4     The Role of Instructional Materials on Students’ Performance in Secondary Biology

2.5     Improvisation of Instructional Materials in Schools

2.6     Utilization of Instructional Materials

2.7     Summary of Literature Review



3.1     Area of the Study

3.2     Design of the Study

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation

3.6     Administration of Instrument

3.7     Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Data ANALYSIS and Results

4.2     Discussion of Findings




5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion







1.1   Background to the Study

Instructional materials are not simply chosen for the sake of using resources in classroom instruction. Mainly, these numerous instructional materials can aid in attaining the instructional objectives set at the beginning of the course, and help in facilitating the students’ learning.

When instructional materials are appropriately selected, these can facilitate the effective learning acquisition of the students. Thus, these can uphold their active participation in the classroom tasks and activities. These may further enhance their comprehension of the subject matter when, of course, chosen and utilized appropriately. Certainly, according to Ugwu (2018), the reason for using instructional materials directs to an important discussion on the proper selection and utilization.


It is important to remember that one of the activities in science is experimentation. It provides a forum for practicalising the theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom and for demonstrating the psychomotor skills of a teacher and learner.


However, many students see science as abstract and irrelevant to their lives due to lack of engaging classroom laboratory equipment (Kolawole and Oginni, 2019). Laboratory and field work aid the understanding of difficult concepts in the curriculum; creates opportunity for the testing of facts and theories in science.  Experimentation thus gives room for better attainment of lesson objectives, since it depends on the availability of science equipment for proper understanding, development and application (Ugwu, 2018).

Moreover, one of the goals of education in Nigeria is the acquisition of appropriate skills, the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competences as equipment for individuals to live in and contribute to the development of the society (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2014).


Furthermore, the realization of this goal can be impeded by non-availability of science equipment that can ensure effective teaching and learning. Iwuazor (2010) observed that as appropriate instructional media are chosen in the delivery of the course contents, students will be guided to improve their learning, performance rate and achievement.

Whether traditional or newer instructional materials, these are indeed relevant to the process of teaching and learning. Most notably, teachers also have to take into consideration the students’ learning styles and preferences. Their learning characteristics will also help to determine what and how to use them effectively in instruction.

Many authors have, however, reported the issue of inadequacy of science equipment in educational institutions in Nigeria (Ogunleye, 2017).


However, this is largely attributed to the persistent poor funding of the education sector. Undeniably, over the years, financial allocation to the education sector has been inadequate for the realization of educational objectives. There is therefore inadequate science equipment in educational institutions at all levels in the country.

For instance, many authors have observed the ineffective teaching of science subjects in educational institutions in Nigeria due to non-use of science equipment for teaching, among other factors. Consequently, there is poor performance of students in sciences, Integrated Science inclusive in both internal and external examinations (Iyekekpolor, 2006). Therefore, this situation calls for urgent attention.


Instructional Material Utilization and Academic Performance in Integrated Science among Junior Secondary Schools

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian vision 20-20 will be a mirage if the abysmal performance of students in sciences is not checked on time. However, researchers have observed that memorization of facts have replaced experimentation in some of the Nigerian schools. Therefore, this study is an attempt to find out if the use of instructional media in the teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools in Ika Local Government Area can help improve students’ academic performance.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research study is to:

  1. Find out if the use of instructional materials has effect on students’ academic performance in Integrated Science.


1.4   Significance of the Study

The study will keep all the stakeholders in education better informed if there is a positive influence on the use of instructional materials on students’ performance in Integrated Science. Therefore, these will help them plan to produce, make available for usage. Thus, encourage the use of these materials in teaching and learning of Integrated Science.

Also, it will help teachers appreciate the benefits of using instructional materials in teaching and will encourage them to improvise where the standard ones are unavailable. Teachers work in the classroom will be enhanced, made easy, and time, effort, and energy saved during lesson.

The study will also help the students appreciate the need for the use of instructional materials in learning. Thus, this in turn will improve their academic performance in Integrated Science.

Furthermore, it will help educational administrators formulate polices that will ensure frequent and effective utilization of instructional materials. Hence, educational administrators will be encouraged to organize workshops and seminars. Specifically, on the proper utilization of instructional materials, and on the development of improvised instructional materials.


1.5   Research Question

  1. Is there any significant difference between the use of instructional materials and students’ performance in Integrated Science?

1.6   Research Hypothesis


Ho1: There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught Integrated Science using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.



1.7   Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials: These are educational resources used to improve students’ knowledge, abilities and skills, to monitor their assimilation of information, and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing.


Improvisation: Improvisation is the making of substitute from local materials found at home or school premises when the real or original equipment is not available.

Academic Performance: Academic ability of students in school subject as determined by the result of given tests or examinations.

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