September 20, 2023
Models Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology

Models Utilization and Academic Performance of Students in Biology





1.1   Background to the Study                 

Education is a primary tool for promoting economic development and aids people to use and cultivate their abilities (Adeyemi, & Adu, 2010). Outlook, expertise and knowledge that are important for effective living are acquired through education (Okeke, 2017). Secondary Education is a linkage between elementary education and the employment market. It is important in the training of human resource for advancement and provision of life opportunities (Onsomu, Muitaka, Ngwane & Kosimbei, 2016).

Science is the foundation on which present day technological breakthrough is hinged (Igwe, 2013). To cultivate scientifically knowledgeable students. That are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions is a key goal of science education.

The goals of science education (Maduekwe, 2016) “consist of preparing learners to perceive and investigate their environment. Elucidate natural-phenomena, cultivate scientific attitudes like curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity. Apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment. Develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science”.

Effective instructions in a classroom require careful planning geared towards individualize learning. Resource-based learning is the response to the need to individualize instruction.

Use of teaching and learning resources like models help achieve this objective as learning proceeds from the known to the unknown. This inductive method of learning where reasoning progresses from specific to general constitutes effective learning. Deductive reasoning on the other hand involves mostly lecture methods. Where learning proceeds from general to specific with little or no resources required for effective learning. A rich Biology lesson requires integration of resources for proper understanding of concepts.

Beswick (2015), says that when sufficient range in suitably graded aid becomes available. It makes lockstep advance unnecessary as it discourages uniformity of opinion by learners enabling teachers to have a real opportunity to individualize learning. When this happens he adds, increasing number of students will reach more and more objectives.

Models should incorporate all teaching resource which provides direct and concrete experience thereby reducing abstraction during instructional process (Nicholas, 2010).



1.2    Statement of the Problem

In educational system, success is measured by academic performance or how well a student meets the standard set out by the institution. The menace of failure among the young school students has stared the parent’s, government and stakeholders in the face.

There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man-power resources.

Most students in secondary schools experience academic problem that manifest itself in the form of poor academic performance mostly in Biology subject.

Many researchers have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of secondary school students.

Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013) reported lack of good home foundation for students as cause of poor performance by students. Achieng (2014) found home factors, student’s factors and institutional capacity as the causes. Furthermore, Adesehimwa and Aremu (2010) posited that factors resident in child, family, society, government and the school may be composite causative effects for these downward trend. Hence, this study seeks to examine the influence of model resources on the academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary schools in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.

This motivated the researcher to investigate on the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Biology in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The study sought to investigate the effect of models utilization on academic performance of students in Biology in Ibiono Ibom Local Government Area. To achieve the above general purpose, the study specifically:

(i)       Examined the effect of the use of models on the academic performance of students in Biology.

(ii)      Assessed whether there could be any significant difference in performance between male and female students when taught Biology using models.


1.4   Significance of the Study

Instructional materials are of great importance to teachers and learners due to the fact that, they make abstract lesson real, practical and so enhance the understanding of the subject:

(i)       This study significantly will help government, educational planners, as well as other philanthropic organizations. Thus, to know the need for the provision of quality and quantity facilities adequate for Biology as it will help students to be self-reliant.

(ii)      It will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resourcefulness among Biology teachers. Because, they will have to think of and select relevant materials for utilization during the teaching learning process.

(iii)     Also, the study will be of great significance to future researchers. Who may wish to carry out more studies on topics related to models utilization.


1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study

  1. To what extent does the mean performance of students differ between those taught skeletal system with models and those taught the same concept without the utilization of models.
  2. To what extent does the mean performance of male students differ between that of females when taught skeletal system with the utilization of models.


1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the purpose of the study to guide the study;

(i)       There is no significant difference. In the mean performance of students taught Biology using models and those taught Biology without models

(ii)      There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female Biology Students taught using models.



1.7   Limitation of the Study    

The researcher had difficulty in administering the research instrument on the selected schools due to the location of the schools.

Also lack of time due to researcher workload and financial constraints were the major factors that affect this study.


1.9   Operational Definition of Terms

(i)     Model: A visual aid or picture which highlights the main ideas and variables in a process or a system. In addition, models include words or diagrams intended to give an understanding of the variables associated with school learning.

Model is also a recognizable 3-dimensional likeness of representation of the real thing.

(ii)    Academic Performance: This refers to the Child’s examination scores or result in school.

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