TEACHING TECHNIQUES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ECONOMICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study was designed to investigate teaching techniques and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools in Obot Akara Local Government Area. The population of the study comprises of all SS1 – SS3 students from six (6) public secondary schools in the study area with a population of one thousand, nine hundred and seventy five (1,975) students. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two hundred (200) students from five (5) selected secondary schools from SS1 class in the study area.
Forty (40) students were selected from each of the secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire titled “Teaching Techniques and Academic Performance of Students Questionnaire (TTAPSQ)”. The data generated for the study was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). The findings from the study revealed that teaching techniques such as discussion. Guided-inquiry and discovery teaching technique, has a strong significant relationship on student’s academic performance in Economics.
1.1 Background to the Study
The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner. (Tebabal, 2014). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission. Teachers should apply appropriate teaching techniques that best suit with specific objectives and level exist outcomes. The teaching technique used by the teacher in teaching determined the extent of academic performance of students in secondary school level.
Hence, teaching techniques are the different ways teachers employ to convey the learning materials to learners. Instructional method is the series of actions or activities planned by the instructor. Without a doubt, systematically provided to the learner to enable him receive and process the information, retain and recall it in order to be able to use it to tackle emerging life task and problems.
Amadi (2015) revealed that teaching techniques refers to all the things the instructor does in the classroom. To enable the learner learn. He further stated that teaching techniques involves the instructors’ skills and manipulations on the subject matter. Thus, the learning situations in order to secure positive and desired response for the learner. There are different types of teaching techniques which include, lecture teaching technique, discovery teaching techniques, guided inquiry teaching techniques. Others, discussion teaching techniques, demonstration teaching techniques and project teaching techniques etc.
Discovery teaching technique refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge or information or finding out about phenomena. It involves investigation, searching, defining a problem, formulating hypothesis. This technique gives the learner the opportunity to engage in exploitation and gives students self direction to disseminate and accommodate information (Ojo, 2015).
In addition, Discussion teaching technique remains one of the most popular technique for transmitting information and ideas by teachers, trainers and speakers. Therefore, discussion can be informative, boring and overwhelming depending. On the compelling nature of the message and the presenter’s style and clarity of message (Veselinovska, 2017).
Furthermore, Anderson (2018), guided inquiry can be use as an inquiry discovery. Since it allows students to discover some fact on his or her own through the aid of the teacher. Thus, guided inquiry is a teaching technique that deals with innovative team approach to teaching and learning. Which the teacher and other experts and specialist point hand together to design and implement inquiry learning for the purpose of discovering of fact.
Therefore, on the strength of the above. Therefore, this study sought to examine the influence of teachers’ teaching techniques on students’ academic performance in Economics.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Economic is an important subject because its knowledge is applicable in most social science related careers such as sociology, accounting and commerce. Obviously, The study of Economics provides students with basic life skills and processes that help to prepare them to become productive members of the society. Moreover, with this importance of the subject. Nevertheless, it is necessary that the teachers who are the implementers of the curriculum utilize the most effective teaching techniques to get the students to perform optimally in the subject.
However, there has been a greater decrease in the performance of students in both internal and external examination because of poor teaching technique adopted by Economics teachers which inversely affect academic performance of students in learning of the subject (Economics) in secondary schools.
Certainly, how can the teachers know which of the techniques is most effective? There has to be an analysis of the various techniques known in the teaching of Economics. This study is poised to investigate how teaching techniques relates with academic performance of students.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
- Assess the relationship between discussion technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
- Examine the relationship between guided inquiry technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
- Examine the relationship between discovery teaching technique and academic performance of students in Economics.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to the teachers, students, educational stake-holders and other researchers in the following ways:
- The teachers will see the need of mastering all the teaching techniques so that they will utilize them when necessary.
- The findings of this study will also be of help to the students in that when the teacher makes use of suitable teaching technique. It will improve the academic performance of the students.
- The educational stake-holders will see the need of organizing in-service training programmes. Such as workshops and conferences to the teachers in other to update their knowledge on teaching techniques.
- Also, this paper will serve as reference point to others researchers who like to conduct a research on the same or similar topic.
- It would bring into focus the teaching techniques that best guarantee improvement in students’ understanding of academic performance.
- It would help curriculum planners to incorporate appropriate teaching techniques into the Economics curriculum. To enhance the teaching effectiveness of teachers and improve students’ academic performance.
1.5 Research Questions
- How does discussion technique relates with academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools?
- How does guided inquiry technique relates with academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools?
- To what extent does discovery technique relates with academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- There is no significant relationship between discussion technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
- There is no significant relationship between guided inquiry technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
- There is no significant relationship between discovery technique and academic performance of students in Economics in secondary schools.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
- Financial Constraint- Insufficient fund will tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher. In sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection.
- Time Constraint- The time frame stipulated by the School Management to carry out research of this kind is not sufficient in addition to other academic activities in the school.
1.8 Definition of terms
- Teaching Techniques: This define as the different approach used by the teacher in the classroom during teaching/learning process to impart knowledge to the students.
- Academic performance: This refers to the general outcome or result a learners receive at the end of completion of an academic engagement in form of examination or test.
- Discovery technique: It is an approach to learning which emphasize student’s initiative and direction of their own learning experience.
- Lecture technique: This is an instructional technique whereby a teacher does all the talking and summarized lesson within a stipulated period of time without involving the learners in the lesson.
- Guided-Inquiry: This is an instructional technique where the teachers guided and assess the ability of the students through implementing inquiry learning.
- Students: This refers to a person who is studying or learning at a place of secondary school.
- Economics: For the purpose of this research, Economics is define as the subject taught at the senior secondary school level.