UTILIZATION OF INDIGENOUS INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study investigated effect of Utilization of Indigenous Instructional Materials on Students’ Academic Performance in Biology in Secondary Schools. The population for the study was made up of 4031 Senior Secondary Two (SS2) Biology students. One hundred Biology students randomly selected from two secondary schools constituted the sample size. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was the instrument for data collection.
Mean, standard deviation and independent t-test statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. The result revealed that there is a significant difference in academic performance of students taught the concept of flowering plant in Biology using indigenous instructional materials and those taught using standard materials; there is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught the concepts of the flowering plants in Biology using the Indigenous instructional materials and those taught using standard materials.
1.1 Background to the Study
Science is the bedrock on which modern day technology breakthrough is hinged. It is also a systematic study of the nature of the behavior of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. Fape (2007) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application.
The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2006). Includes the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena. Develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical thinking and objectivity. Apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment. Develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science.
Since the world is turning scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on science. According to Ogunleye (2006), science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps to know more about the universe. Without the application of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic discipline such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology.
Biology as a branch of natural science deals with the study of life (plants and animals). Biology provides students with the ability to acquire:
- adequate laboratory and field skills in biology;
- meaningful and relevant knowledge in biology;
- ability to apply scientific knowledge to everyday life in matters of personal and community health and agriculture; and
- functional and reasonable scientific attitudes (Federal Ministry of Education, 2008).
Furthermore, Biology education involves much manipulation of materials by students. A clear look at the contents in biology shows that for a successful attainment of the goals of the subject. A lot of practical and field work must be done by students using necessary equipment and apparatuses. Without this necessary equipment, students will not be able to meet the objectives of this subject. Similarly, as a teacher it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for effective teaching of Biology. The use of indigenous based instructional materials becomes the next option. Thus, studies have shown the importance of using indigenous based instructional materials in teaching of Biology.
Countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically. The fundamental aim of Biology is to develop in students’ science oriented skills.
However, many factors have hindered the successive implementation of the core curriculum in Biology. In addition, these factors according to Chukwuneke and Chikwenze (2012) include teachers’ method of teaching, learning environment, student’s view of the subject. Availability of instructional aids, among others these hindrances had led to the poor academic achievement of students in school examinations. Research has revealed that the measurements of students’ previous educational outcomes are the most important indication of students’ future achievement.
The vile of instructional materials in teaching includes. Making instruction more powerful and immediate, speeding up learning. By saving time through scientific mode of instruction, inspiring students to be curious in learning, serving as a source of finding answers to questions. Also, it helps to raise learning from verbalization to practical aspect of teaching and learning. Makes teaching and learning interesting, easy and amusing, it brings clarity and creates recognition. That allow student have a realistic hand and a total knowledge of the subject and also improve the competence of learners and makes learning more meaningful to students.
Kay (2008), opined that instructional materials stimulate the students’ desire to learn. It makes learning available to a wider audience, controls the pace of learning, promotes better understanding and helps to overcome physical difficulties in presenting the subject content.
Definitely, the selection of indigenous based instructional materials is the activity of the students and the teachers and this activity. According to Bassey (2002) have two main constraints militating against the successful selection of indigenous based instructional materials. These are the technical factors related to the question of degree of accuracy and precision that is possible with the selection of instructional materials. The human factor relates to the teachers’ skill in developing the resources. While providing the appropriate learning experiences to the learners.
In addition, Mbajorya (2003) reported lack of adequate professional training as a major problem militating against the effective use of selection of indigenous based instructional materials. Thus, the use of teacher produced selection of indigenous based instructional materials. Exposure of students to resources available in their immediate environment for instruction at this level brings students to real world of activities and may help students gain scientific skills.
The utilization of selection of indigenous based instructional materials serves the following purposes in the educational system. According to (Olumorin, 2014). It reduces the money spent on the purchase of equipment in educational institutions. Ensures the realization of lesson objectives; helps in solving the problem of lack of equipment in educational institutions. Gives room for a teacher to demonstrate his creative skills. Gives room for the use of cheap local materials as alternatives to the expensive foreign ones.
The Olumorin, (2014) stated that the utilization of selection of indigenous based instructional materials encourages students.
Towards the development of creative abilities; strengthens enquiry, discovery and investigative method in science. It provides a frame of reference on which students can key their attention during classroom activities; enables teacher to think of cheaper. Better and faster methods of making teaching learning process easier for students. Also, affords student the opportunity of becoming familiar with resources in their environment.
Moreover, in recent times gender related issues in science education has continued to receive serious attention. Judging by the quanta of studies done to that effect. The studies by Ogunleye and Babajide (2011) lend credence to non-significant gender effect in science. Baser (2006) shows that fostering conceptual change does not depend on gender.
This present study also focused on the effect of gender on academic performance of students when taught using indigenous based instructional materials. Thus, this formed the background to this study. To investigate the utilization of indigenous based instructional materials and academic performance of students in biology in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Personal observation has shown that memorization of facts has replaced experimentation in some of Nigerian schools. Making the achievement of vision 20-20 toward technological advancement and breakthrough to remain a hope of many decades to come. This is due to the fact that some foreign materials are not available or are inadequate in some schools.
Considering the role of science and technology in the development of any nation and more so in a country considered to be developing like Nigeria. However, there has been lack of inadequate materials for teaching Biology in secondary schools. This then triggered the researcher to ask could the use indigenous based instructional materials influence the academic performance of students in Biology.
The need of providing answer to the question therefore motivated the researcher. To investigate the effect of indigenous based instructional materials on the academic performance of students in Biology. The findings of this study will thus provide answers to some other questions such as. Does students taught with indigenous based instructional materials perform better than students taught without indigenous based instructional materials in biology?. Also, do male and female students taught with indigenous based instructional materials perform differently in biology? Therefore, based on these facts. The study seeks to find out effect of utilization of indigenous based instructional materials on students’ academic performance in Biology in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of utilization of indigenous based instructional materials on students’ academic performance in biology. Specifically, the study intends to:
- Compare the academic performance of students taught the concept of flowering plants in Biology using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard instructional materials.
- Examine the academic performance of male and female students taught the concept of flowering plants using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard instructional materials.
- Examine the difference in the retention of Biology students taught the concept of flowering plants using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard instructional materials.
1.4 Research Questions
- What differences exist in academic performance of students taught the concept of flowering plants using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught with standard instructional materials?
- What differences exist between the male and female students the concept of flowering plants using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard instructional materials?
- What differences exist among the retention ability of biology students taught the concept of flowering plants using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard materials?
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male and female students taught the concept of flowering plants when taught using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard materials.
- There is no significant difference in the retention ability of male and female students taught the concept of flowering plants using indigenous based instructional materials and those taught using standard materials.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to students, teachers, curriculum planners, and parents in the following ways:
Students: This study will help to develop problem solving skill in students and also help them to be more resourceful in learning Biology.
Curriculum planners: The study would be beneficial to curriculum planners. Who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations students-teachers indigenous-based instructional materials.
Teachers: it will enhance innovative thinking, creativity and resource fullness among Biology teachers. Because, they will have to think of selecting relevant indigenous based instructional materials for their lesson.
To government: the study will provide them with sound knowledge of organizing seminars for teachers on the indigenous based instructional materials selection and utilization in teaching of Biology.
The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars. This will guide the choice of indigenous based instructional materials used in the teaching/learning process in biology and other subject areas.
To future researchers: the study will provide a source of data for researches on this topic and other related areas.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as used in this study:
Indigenous Based Instructional Materials: Instructional materials that are produced using local materials from the immediate environment.
Foreign Materials: These are those foreign materials that are used in the teaching of Biology.
Academic Performance: It is a grades achieved by students in an examination in Biology.
Biology: This is the study of living things (plants and animals).